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## 5.3. Tools

This submenu contains several utility tools which can be used through the command line. Most of functions are useful to analyze parameters on the existing geometry, such as the dimensions of the objects, the curvatures, or the overlapped areas.

The available tools are shown in the following figure:

### 5.3.1. Distance

This option allows the user to calculate the Euclidean distance between two given points.

Calculating the distance between two points

### 5.3.2. Angle

This tool allows the user to calculate the angle (in degrees) between two given vectors. Vectors are specified by an initial point and an end point.

Calculating the angle between two vectors

### 5.3.3. Length

This tool computes the length of the selected curves. When multiple curves are selected, the length computed is the total sum of all the curves lengths.

Length of a circle

### 5.3.4. Area

This tool computes the approximate area of the selected surfaces. When multiple surfaces are selected, the area computed is the total sum of all the surfaces areas.

Area of a sphere

### 5.3.5. Naked Borders

This tool shows the borders of the surfaces in the geometry that are not connected with another ones. The command only shows the naked borders, but it asks to the answer whether the detected borders must be added as new curves in the geometry or not, as shown in next figure.

Two different options may be used to use this command:

• If no parameters (analyzeNakedBorders) is introduced, the whole geometry is considered.
• If the parameter –s is added (analyzeNakedBorders –s), only the geometry specified by the user is considered.

Analyzing the naked borders of a cross

### 5.3.6. Edges

This tool shows the borders of the surfaces in the geometry that are considered as Edges, it means that they are not connected with another ones or even being connected, the transition between the normal vectors of the connected surfaces is discontinuous (define an angle greater than zero). The command only shows the edges, but it asks to the answer whether the detected edges must be added as new curves in the geometry or not, as shown in figure below (in this case, the 12 resulting curves has been added and selected to be highlighted).

Two different options may be used to use this command:

• If no parameters (analyzeEdges) is introduced, the whole geometry is considered.
• If the parameter –s is added (analyzeEdges –s), only the geometry specified by the user is considered.

Analyzing the naked borders of a flare

### 5.3.7. Curvature

This option identifies approximately when the curves or surfaces vary their direction at a given angle. It may be useful for splitting strong curvatures, so the meshing-analyzing processes should be simpler. The command only shows the points where the curves varies the desired angles, but it also asks to the user whether the detected points must be added to the geometry or not.

The command only asks for the desired reference angle (in degrees).

The following figure shows an example of application:

Example of curvature analysis on a circle

### 5.3.8. Duplicated Objects

This tool identifies the elements duplicated in the existing geometry. The duplicated elements are listed and the user must decide how to proceed with them.

Duplicated Objects panel

The elements and options available in the tool are:

• Check Normal Vectors: If this option is selected, the tool identifies as duplicated elements only those whose normal vectors of the duplicated surfaces (or direction for curves) are coherent.
• Update Button: Press it to repeat the identification of the duplicated elements in the current geometry. It is necessary when the Check Normal Vector option or some elements of the geometry have been modified.
• Status: Indicates if there are duplicated objects or not.
• List of duplicated objects found: In case of identifying some duplicated elements, they are separated in different lists. When the current selected list is changed, its details are updated and its geometric elements are selected. If some geometric entity is deleted, the next time that the current list is selected, the deleted element won’t be included. Two different duplicated elements may be identified:
• Full duplicated objects, that is, identical elements. If there is one or more of this type, the first list element contains all the duplicated entities identified (without including the original ones) with the name “All duplicated elements”. However, the user also can inspect every duplicated shape (including both the original shape and its duplications), as they are listed in the next elements as “Duplicated XXX counter”, where XXX is the type of elements (point, curve, surface or object) included, and counter is just a counter of each type.
• Partial duplicated objects, that is, objects with some of their surfaces duplicated with other ones. They are listed as “Partial duplicated object Counter”, where Counter is just a counter of partial duplicated elements.
• Selectable geometric entities in the list: All the geometric elements included in a given list of duplicated objects are shown. These elements may be selected from this list. The index of the surface within any partial duplicated object is also shown.
• Commands that may be useful for the selection: By depending on the type of the duplicated objects selected in the first list and the existing geometry in it, some commands are suggested to be applied. Click twice quickly on the desired command to run it.

In the following, an example of a box and two identical planes is analysed to test this tool.

Example for duplicated objects identification.

Click on Geometry – Tools – Duplicated Objects to check the duplicated elements identified in the geometry.

With the default configuration, the next elements have been identified:

• All duplicated elements. Only the second plane is listed. All the duplicated elements included in this list could be deleted to solve the identical entities duplication.

• Duplicated object 1. The two planes are listed. The user should decide whether changing or not one of the involved elements.

• Partial duplicated object 1. The local index of the surface duplicated within every object is shown.

Without changing the existing geometry, select the option Check Normal Vector and then click on the Update button to re-run the identification. The next lists are shown:

• All duplicated elements. Only the second plane is listed.

• Duplicated object 1. The two planes are listed because their normal vector is coherent.

• Partial duplicated objects are not listed because the normal vectors of the planes are opposite to the duplicated surface of the box.

Without changing the existing geometry again, unselect the option Check Normal Vector and then click on the Update button to re-run the identification and come back to the first configuration. Then select the Partial duplicated object 1 in the list. Note that the two planes are directly selected, so click on delete command. After deleting the two planes, the lists contain the following elements:

• All duplicated elements. Now the list is empty.
• Duplicated object 1. Now the list is also empty.
• Partial duplicated object 1. Only the box is listed because the two planes have already been removed.

Click on Update button to re-run the identification. The Status has changed and no duplicated objects are identified.

### 5.3.9. Overlapped Objects

This tool identifies the elements overlapped in the existing geometry. The overlapped elements are listed and the user must decide how to proceed with them.

Overlapped Objects panel

The elements and options available in the tool are:

• Check Normal Vectors: If this option is selected, the tool identifies as overlapped elements only those whose normal vectors of the overlapped surfaces (or direction for curves) are coherent.
• Update Button: Press it to repeat the identification of the overlapped elements in the current geometry. It is necessary if the Check Normal Vector option or some elements of the geometry have been modified.
• Status: Indicates whether there are overlapped objects or not.
• List of overlapped objects found: In case of identifying some overlapped elements, they are separated in different lists. When the current selected list is changed, its details are updated and its geometric elements are selected. If some geometric entity is deleted, the next time that the current list is selected, the deleted element won’t be included.
• Selectable geometric entities in the list: All the geometric elements included in a given list of overlapped objects are shown. These elements may be selected from this list. The index of the surface within any partial overlapped object is also shown.
• Commands that may be useful for the selection: By depending on the type of the overlapped objects selected in the first list and the existing geometry in this list, some commands are suggested to be applied. Click twice quickly on the desired command to run it.

In the following, an example of a box and a plane is analysed to test this tool.

Example for overlapped objects identification.

Click on Geometry – Tools – Overlapped Objects to check the overlapped elements identified in the geometry.

With the default configuration, the next elements have been identified:

• Overlapped object 1. The box and the plane are listed (both are objects). The local index of the surface duplicated within every object is shown.

Without changing the existing geometry, select the option Check Normal Vector and then click on the Update button to re-run the identification. Then no overlapped objects are identified, as the vector normal of the plane is in the opposite direction to the lower surface of the box.

Without changing the existing geometry again, unselect the option Check Normal Vector and then click on the Update button to re-run the identification and come back to the first configuration. Then we are going to solve the overlap issue by using one of the suggested commands. Click twice on booleanUnion, and then select the box as "objectA", and the plane as "objectB".

After finishing the booleanUnion operation, click on Update button to re-run the identification. The Status has changed and no overlapped objects are identified, as the overlapped part of the plane has been removed.

### 5.3.10. Split Surfaces by Curvature

This tool analyzes the curvature of the selected surfaces according to a specified angle in degrees. The surfaces with such curvatures are listed with the list of parametric coordinates where this criterion may be satisfied.

By default, not all the parametric coordinates will be always enabled because the analysis is performed taking into account the neighboring surfaces, so more divisions may appear because of the adjacent surfaces. The tool enables only the divisions that provide the angular step.

This tool only takes into account NURBS surfaces, so objects must be exploded (explode command) to be analyzed and meshes must be converted (meshToSurfaces command). Note that meshes are made of almost planar elements, so analyzing its curvature would not have real interest.

Split Surfaces By Curvature panel

The elements and options available in the tool are:

• Angle: The reference angle for the curvatures detection.
• Update Button: Press it to repeat the identification of the curved surfaces in the selected list. It must be pressed if the Angle is modified.
• Status: Indicates if there are curved surfaces or not.
• List of curved surfaces found: In case of identifying some curved surfaces, they are separated in this list. The list is updated whenever some of the considered surfaces is removed of the geometry or modified with some opperations such as group, split or boolean operations,...
• Parametric coordinates: Table with the U and V coordinates where a curvature deviation has been detected for the selected surface in the list. The detected parametric coordinates can be selected to be visualized in Dash-Blue lines, but only the enabled coordinates are always represented in grey lines.
• SplitSurfaceByIsoparamGrid button: The curved surface selected in the list may be split by the isoparam lines corresponding to the parametric points enabled in the U-V tables. The button only can be used when at least one parametric coordinate is enabled.

In the following, an example of a sphere is analyzed to test this tool. Remember that the sphere must be exploded to be analyzed with the tool.

Example for splitting an sphere by curvature

Click on Geometry – Tools – Split Surfaces by Curvature to open the panel.

By selecting all the surfaces of the exploded sphere, the next two test are performed:

• Angle of 30 degrees. Select all the surfaces, insert a curvature angle of 30 degrees and then click on Update button.

As all the surfaces of the sphere has the same shape and a curvature of 90 degrees in each parametric dimension, they are listed with 2 parametric divisions in U and V dimensions each one. The next figure shows the representation of the second surface in the list with all the parametric coordinates on the table enabled and only one of then selected.

Analysis of curvature on the sphere performed with 30 degrees

• Angle of 20 degrees. Select all the surfaces, insert a curvature angle of 20 degrees and then click on update button.

As all the surfaces of the sphere has the same shape and a curvature of 90 degrees in each parametric dimension, and the selected angle is not a divisor of 90, the curvature of 20 degrees may be different according to the start reference point that is considered. The next figure shows the representation of the second surface in the list with the default parametric coordinates on the table enabled and the disabled ones in V-dimension selected. In this figure is shown that the curvature analysis provides two different solutions: the enabled and the disabled divisions.

Analysis of curvature on the sphere performed with 20 degrees.

Click on SplitSurfaceByIsoparamGrid button to finish the example by dividing the surface with the enabled parametric coordinates. After run the command, the list of curved surfaces is updated and the first one is selected, as shown in next figure.

Surface of the sphere divided by the default points for 20 degrees

### 5.3.11. Clean Surfaces

This tool allows to filter the selection of multiple surfaces by applying different criterions. Use the tool if the geometry may contain tiny surfaces.

The selected surfaces are filtered according to the selected Criterion:

• Smallest dimension: only the surfaces with their shortest side lower than the Smaller than parameter (in Units) are kept in the original selection.
• Area: only the surfaces with their area lower than the Smaller than parameter (in square Units) are kept from the original selection.
• Perpendicular to direction: only the surfaces with their normal vector perpendicular to the direction given by the XYZ fields are kept from the previous selection. The direction from the origin of coordinates to any point given by the mouse-click may be computed by selecting the Pick option.

After choosing the desired Criterion and its parameter, select the surfaces to be analyzed (Objects must be exploded) and click on Update button.

The Status label shows tips for filtering surfaces or information about the filtered surfaces.

The filtered surfaces are listed in the Detected tiny surfaces table. Any surface within the list may be selected, and also the multiple selection is enabled.

• Click on Delete button to remove the surfaces selected within the Detected tiny surfaces list.
• Click on Delete All button to remove the all the surfaces listed in the Detected tiny surfaces table.

Clean Surfaces panel

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